ringwalt hiv/aids and its impact on adolescentsdenise dion hallforscarolyn tucker halpernbonita iritani sexual activity among teens and teen pregnancy trendssheila peters TABLE 1 sexually transmitted diseasesangela huang smoking and its effect on children's healthchristopher s. The cost of alcohol abuse to society is estimated to be 0 billion per year in health care, public safety, and social welfare expenditures. kirby Substance abuse is an international problem of epidemic proportions that has particularly devastating effects on youth because the early initiation of alcohol, tobacco, or other drug (ATOD) use within this population is linked to abuse and related problem behaviors among adults.
Many college campuses have cultures that are at least covertly supportive of alcohol consumption, and many administrators treat the issue with benign neglect. Eggert, Leona L.; Thompson, Elaine A.; Herting, Jerald R.; Nicholas, Liela J.; and Dicker, Barbara G. "Preventing Adolescent Drug Abuse and High School Dropout through an Intensive School-Based Social Network Development Program." American Journal of Health Promotion 2861. Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data indicate that about half of all high school students report having engaged in intercourse at least once.
While most drinking on college campuses occurs in neighborhood bars and residential contexts such as fraternities, relatively little has been done to develop and implement demonstration programs that increase enforcement of, and penalties for, selling or otherwise supplying liquor to underage students. Ennett, Susan; Tobler, Nancy S.; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; and Flewelling, Robert L.1994. A Meta-Analysis of Project DARE Outcome Evaluations." American Journal of Public Health 941401. Almost 10 percent of youth were younger than age thirteen at first sexual intercourse, and by twelfth grade, 65 percent of students have become sexually active.
Strategies designed to increase knowledge and convey information about the risks and dangers of drug use are generally recognized to be failures, in part because of the lack of association between knowledge and use. "Alcohol Initiation Outcomes of Universal Family-Focused Preventive Interventions: One-and Two-Year Follow-Ups of a Controlled Study." Journal of Studies on Alcohol 3111. University of Michigan News and Information Services. "'Ecstasy' Use Rises Sharply among Teens in 2000: Use of Many Other Drugs Stays Steady, but Significant Declines Are Reported for Some." December 14 news release. "Alcohol Abuse Costs Society $250 Billion Per Year." Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a significant threat to youth and young adults. The majority of HIV infections among adolescents are contracted through sexual activity.
Indeed, all largely didactic approaches to prevention education, such as Project "Drug Abuse Resistance Education" (Project DARE), are widely understood to be ineffective, especially if they concentrate on long-term risks. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, News and Information Services. Among HIV positive thirteen to nineteen year-old females who had not developed AIDS, 49 percent of the cases were associated with exposure through sexual contact, 7 percent through injection drug use, 1 percent through blood exposure, and 43 percent through a risk not reported or identified.
Mass media campaigns are of dubious value, especially if they are brief, aired in contexts that are unlikely to reach their target audience, and uncoordinated with a comprehensive, community-wide strategy. Strategies to Reduce Underage Alcohol Use: Typology and Brief Overview. Among males in the same age group, 50 percent were associated with male to male sex, 5 percent with injection drug use, 5 percent with both male to male sex and injection drug use, 5 percent with hemophilia or coagulation disorder, 7 percent with heterosexual exposure, 1 percent with blood exposure, and 28 percent with an unreported or unidentified risk.