Gajadhar and Green comment that both Morse code abbreviations are more succinct than modern abbreviations such as LOL.
Four vertical typographical emoticons were published in 1881 by the U. satirical magazine Puck, with the stated intention that the publication's letterpress department thus intended to "lay out ...
The text of his original proposal, posted to the Carnegie Mellon University computer science general board on 19 September 1982 (), was thought to have been lost, but was recovered 20 years later by Jeff Baird from old backup tapes.
I propose that the following character sequence for joke markers: :-) Read it sideways.
His designs were registered at the United States Copyright Office in 1997, and appeared online as files in 1998.
In 1997, The Smiley Company filed a trademark application with the United States Patent and Trademark Office.
The National Telegraphic Review and Operators Guide in April 1857 documented the use of the number 73 in Morse code to express "love and kisses" (later reduced to the more formal "best regards").